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ar(1)

ar(1)                            User Commands                           ar(1)



NAME
       ar - maintain portable archive or library

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/ar -d [-SvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/bin/ar -m [-SvV] [-{a|b|i} posname] archive [file...]


       /usr/bin/ar -p [-sSvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/bin/ar -q [-cSvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/bin/ar -r [-cuSvV] [-{a|b|i} posname] archive [file...]


       /usr/bin/ar -s|-S [-vV] archive


       /usr/bin/ar -t [-sSvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/bin/ar -x [-CsSTvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -d [-SvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -m [-SvV] [-{a|b|i} posname] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -p [-sSvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -q [-cSvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -r [-cuSvV] [-{a|b|i} posname] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -s|-S [-vV] archive


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -t [-sSvV] archive [file...]


       /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -x [-CsSTvV] archive [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The ar utility maintains groups of files combined into a single archive
       file. Its main use is to create and update library files.  However,  it
       can  be  used  for  any  similar purpose. The magic string and the file
       headers used by ar consist of printable ASCII characters. If an archive
       is composed of printable files, the entire archive is printable.


       When ar creates an archive, it creates headers in a format that is por‐
       table across all machines. The portable archive  format  and  structure
       are  described  in  detail  in  ar.h(3HEAD).  The  archive symbol table
       described there is used by the link editor  ld(1)  to  effect  multiple
       passes  over  libraries  of object files in an efficient manner. An ar‐
       chive symbol table is only created and maintained by ar when  there  is
       at least one object file in the archive. The archive symbol table is in
       a specially named file that is always the first file  in  the  archive.
       This file is never mentioned or accessible to the user. Whenever the ar
       command is used to create or update the contents of  such  an  archive,
       the  symbol  table is rebuilt. The -s option described below forces the
       symbol table to be rebuilt.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a posname

           Positions new files in archive after the file named by posname.


       -b posname

           Positions new files in archive before the file named by posname.


       -c

           Suppresses the diagnostic message that is written to standard error
           by default when archive is created.


       -C

           Prevents  extracted  files  from  replacing like-named files in the
           file system. This option is useful when -T is also used to  prevent
           truncated file names from replacing files with the same prefix.


       -d

           Deletes one or more files from archive.


       -i posname

           Positions  new  files  in archive before the file named by posname.
           This option is equivalent to -b.


       -m

           Moves files. If -a, -b, or -i are specified, the  -m  option  moves
           files  to the new position. Otherwise, -m moves files to the end of
           archive.


       -p

           Prints the contents of files in archive to standard output.  If  no
           files are specified, the contents of all files in archive are writ‐
           ten in the order of the archive.


       -q

           Quickly appends files to the end of  archive.  Positioning  options
           -a,  -b, and -i are invalid. The command does not check whether the
           added files are already in archive. This option is useful to  avoid
           quadratic behavior when creating a large archive piece-by-piece.


       -r

           Replaces or adds files in archive. If archive does not exist, a new
           archive file is created and a  diagnostic  message  is  written  to
           standard  error,  unless  the  -c  option  is specified. Files that
           replace existing files do not change the order of the  archive.  If
           the  -u  option  is  used with the -r option, only those files with
           dates of modification later than the archive  files  are  replaced.
           The  -a,  -b,  or -i options can be used to specify the position at
           which the new files are to be placed. Otherwise, the new files  are
           placed at the end.


       -s

           Forces  the  regeneration of the archive symbol table even if ar is
           not invoked with an option that will modify the  archive  contents.
           This  command  is  useful to restore the archive symbol table after
           the strip(1) command has been used on the archive.


       -S

           When building the archive symbol table, force the use of the 64-bit
           capable  symbol table format. By default, the 32-bit format is used
           for all archives smaller than 4GB, and the larger  format  is  used
           for larger archives that exceed the 32-bit limit.


       -t

           Prints  a  table of contents of archive. The files specified by the
           file operands are included in the written list. If no file operands
           are  specified,  all  files in archive are included in the order of
           the archive.


       -T

           Allows file name truncation of extracted files whose archive  names
           are longer than the file system can support. By default, extracting
           a file with a name that is too long is an error. In  that  case,  a
           diagnostic message is written and the file is not extracted.


       -u

           Updates older files. When used with the -r option, files within ar‐
           chive are replaced only if the corresponding file has  a  modifica‐
           tion  time  that is at least as new as the modification time of the
           file within archive.


       -v

           Gives verbose output. When used with options -d, -r, or -x, the  -v
           option  writes  a  detailed file-by-file description of the archive
           creation and the constituent files, and maintenance activity.  When
           used with -p, -v writes the name of the file to the standard output
           before writing the file itself to the standard  output.  When  used
           with  -t, -v includes a long listing of information about the files
           within the archive. When used with -x, -v prints the filename  pre‐
           ceding  each  extraction.  When  writing to an archive, -v writes a
           message to the standard error.


       -V
       --version

           Print version information.



       -x

           Extracts the files named by the file  operands  from  archive.  The
           contents of archive are not changed. If no file operands are given,
           all files in archive are extracted. If the  file  name  of  a  file
           extracted  from archive is longer than that supported in the direc‐
           tory to which it is being extracted, the results are undefined. The
           modification time of each file extracted is set to the time file is
           extracted from archive.


       -?
       --help

           Print usage message and immediately exit.



   /usr/xpg4/bin/ar
       The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/ar:

       -v    Same as the /usr/bin/ar version, except when writing  to  an  ar‐
             chive, no message is written to the standard error.


OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       archive    A path name of the archive file.


       file       A  path name. Only the last component is used when comparing
                  against the names of files in the archive. If  two  or  more
                  file  operands  have  the same last path name component (see
                  basename(1)), the results are unspecified.  The  implementa‐
                  tion's  archive format will not truncate valid file names of
                  files added to or replaced in the archive.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of ar: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

       TMPDIR    Determine the pathname that overrides the  default  directory
                 for temporary files, if any.


       TZ        Determine  the  timezone  used  to  calculate  date  and time
                 strings written by ar  -tv.  If  TZ  is  unset  or  null,  an
                 unspecified default timezone is used.


EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.


       >0    An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/ar
       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/linker _ Interface  StabilityCommit‐
       ted


   /usr/xpg4/bin/ar
       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/xopen/xcu4  _  Interface  Stability‐
       Committed _ StandardSee standards(7).


SEE ALSO
       basename(1),  cpio(1), elffile(1), file(1), ld(1), lorder(1), strip(1),
       tar(1), ar.h(3HEAD), a.out(5), attributes(7), environ(7), standards(7)

NOTES
       If the same file is mentioned twice in an argument list, it may be  put
       in the archive twice.


       By convention, archives are suffixed with ".a".


       To  support  historical  convention, the '-' for the first command line
       option can be omitted.


       When inserting ELF objects into an archive file, ar might add \n  char‐
       acters  to  pad  these  objects  to  an  8-byte  boundary. Such padding
       improves the efficiency with which ld(1) can access the  archive.  Only
       ELF  object files are padded in this way. Other archive members are not
       altered. When an object with such padding is extracted from an archive,
       the padding is not included in the resulting output.


       It  is faster to create a new archive from scratch than to insert indi‐
       vidual files into an existing archive via separate calls  to  ar.  When
       possible,  the  recommended strategy is to remove the existing archive,
       and recreate it with a single ar invocation.


       The overall size of an archive is allowed to exceed 4GB.  However,  the
       size  of any individual file within an archive is limited to 4GB by the
       archive file format. See ar.h(3HEAD).


       The maximum user ID and group ID for an individual file within  an  ar‐
       chive  are  limited to 6 decimal digits by the archive file format. Any
       file with a user or group ID greater than 999999 is quietly set to user
       ID "nobody" (60001) or group ID "nobody" (6001). See ar.h(3HEAD).



Oracle Solaris 11.4             30 August 2017                           ar(1)
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