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cpio(1)

cpio(1)                          User Commands                         cpio(1)



NAME
       cpio - copy file archives in and out

SYNOPSIS
       cpio -i [-bBcdfkmPrsStuvV6@/] [-C bufsize] [-E file]
            [-H header] [-I  [-M message]] [-R id] [pattern]...


       cpio -o [-aABcLPvV@/] [-C bufsize] [-H header]
            [-O file [-M message]]


       cpio -p [-adlLmPuvV@/] [-R id] directory

DESCRIPTION
       The  cpio command copies files into and out of a cpio archive. The cpio
       archive can span multiple volumes. The -i, -o, and  -p  options  select
       the  action  to  be performed. The following list describes each of the
       actions. These actions are mutually exclusive.

   Copy In Mode
       cpio  -i (copy in) extracts files from the  standard  input,  which  is
       assumed  to  be  the product of a previous cpio  -o command. Only files
       with names that match one of the patterns are selected. See  sh(1)  and
       OPERANDS for more information about pattern. Extracted files are condi‐
       tionally copied into the current directory tree, based on  the  options
       described below. The permissions of the files are those of the previous
       cpio -o command. The owner and group are the same as the current  user,
       unless  the  current user has the {PRIV_FILE_CHOWN_SELF} privilege. See
       chown(2). If this is the case, owner and group are the  same  as  those
       resulting  from  the  previous cpio -o command. Notice that if cpio  -i
       tries to create a file that already exists and the existing file is the
       same  age  or  younger  (newer), cpio outputs a warning message and not
       replace the file. The -u option can be used  to  unconditionally  over‐
       write the existing file.

   Copy Out Mode
       cpio   -o  (copy out) reads a list of file path names from the standard
       input and copies those files to the standard output, together with path
       name  and  status  information in the form of a cpio archive. Output is
       padded to an 8192-byte boundary by default  or  to  the  user-specified
       block  size  (with  the  -B  or -C options) or to some device-dependent
       block size where necessary (as with the CTC tape).

   Pass Mode
       cpio  -p (pass) reads a list of file path names from the standard input
       and  conditionally  copies  those  files into the destination directory
       tree, based on the options described below.


       If the underlying file system of the source file supports detection  of
       holes  as  reported  by pathconf(2), the file is a sparse file, and the
       destination file is seekable, then holes in sparse files are  preserved
       in pass mode, otherwise holes are filled with zeros.


       cpio assumes four-byte words.


       If, when writing to a character device (-o) or reading from a character
       device (-i), cpio reaches the end of  a  medium,  and  the  -O  and  -I
       options are not used, cpio prints the following message:

         To continue, type device/file name when ready.



       To continue, you must replace the medium and type the character special
       device name and press RETURN.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -i    (copy in) Reads an archive from the standard input and condition‐
             ally  extracts the files contained in it and places them into the
             current directory tree.


       -o    (copy out) Reads a list of file  path  names  from  the  standard
             input  and  copies those files to the standard output in the form
             of a cpio archive.


       -p    (pass) Reads a list of file path names from  the  standard  input
             and  conditionally copies those files into the destination direc‐
             tory tree.



       The following options can be appended in any sequence to the -i, -o, or
       -p options:

       -0            Reads a list of filenames terminated by a null character,
                     instead of a NEWLINE, so that files whose  names  contain
                     NEWLINESs  can  be  archived.  Using find with the-print0
                     option is one way to produce such a list of filenames.

                     This option may be used in copy-out and copy-pass modes.


       -a            Resets access times of input files after they  have  been
                     copied,  making cpio's access invisible. Access times are
                     not reset for linked files when cpio  -pla is specified.


       -A            Appends files to an archive. The -A option  requires  the
                     -O  option.  Valid  only  with archives that are files or
                     that are on hard disk partitions.  The  effect  on  files
                     that are linked in the existing portion of the archive is
                     unpredictable.


       -b            Reverses the order of the bytes  within  each  word.  Use
                     only with the -i option.


       -B            Blocks input/output 5120 bytes to the record. The default
                     buffer size is 8192 bytes when this and  the  -C  options
                     are not used. -B does not apply to the -p (pass) option.


       -c            Reads  or  writes  header  information in ASCII character
                     form for portability. There are no UID  or  GID  restric‐
                     tions associated with this header format. Use this option
                     between  SVR4-based  machines,  or  the  -H   odc  option
                     between  unknown  machines. The -c option implies the use
                     of expanded device numbers, which are only  supported  on
                     SVR4-based systems. When transferring files between SunOS
                     4 or Interactive UNIX and Oracle  Solaris  11.4,  use  -H
                     odc.


       -C bufsize    Blocks  input/output  bufsize  bytes to the record, where
                     bufsize is replaced by a positive  integer.  The  default
                     buffer  size  is  8192 bytes when this and -B options are
                     not used. -C does not apply to the -p (pass) option.


       -d            Creates directories as needed.


       -E file       Specifies an input file (file) that contains  a  list  of
                     filenames  to be extracted from the archive (one filename
                     per line).


       -f            Copies in all files except those in patterns.  See  OPER‐
                     ANDS for a description of pattern.


       -H header     Reads  or  writes  header  information  in header format.
                     Always use this option or the -c option when  the  origin
                     and  the  destination  machines are different types. This
                     option is mutually exclusive with options -c and -6.

                     Valid values for header are:


                     bar              bar head and format. Used only with  the
                                      -i option ( read only).


                     crc | CRC        ASCII  header  with expanded device num‐
                                      bers and an additional  per-file  check‐
                                      sum.  There  are  no UID or GID restric‐
                                      tions associated with this  header  for‐
                                      mat.


                     odc              ASCII  header with small device numbers.
                                      This is the IEEE/P1003 Data  Interchange
                                      Standard  cpio header and format. It has
                                      the widest range of portability  of  any
                                      of  the  header formats. It is the offi‐
                                      cial  format  for   transferring   files
                                      between  POSIX-conforming  systems  (see
                                      standards(7)). Use this format to commu‐
                                      nicate  with  SunOS  4  and  Interactive
                                      UNIX. This header format allows UIDs and
                                      GIDs  up  to  262143 to be stored in the
                                      header.


                     tar | TAR        tar header and format. This is an  older
                                      tar  header  format that allows UIDs and
                                      GIDs up to 2097151 to be stored  in  the
                                      header.  It  is provided for the reading
                                      of legacy archives  only,  that  is,  in
                                      conjunction with option -i.

                                      Specifying   this  archive  format  with
                                      option -o has the same effect as  speci‐
                                      fying the "ustar" format: the output ar‐
                                      chive is in ustar format,  and  must  be
                                      read using -H  ustar.


                     ustar | USTAR    IEEE/P1003 Data Interchange Standard tar
                                      header and format.  This  header  format
                                      allows UIDs and GIDs up to 2097151 to be
                                      stored in the header.

                     Files with UIDs and GIDs greater than  the  limit  stated
                     above  are  archived  with  the  UID and GID of 60001. To
                     transfer a large file (8 Gb — 1 byte), the header  format
                     can be tar|TAR, ustar|USTAR, or odc only.


       -I file       Reads  the  contents of file as an input archive, instead
                     of the standard input. If file  is  a  character  special
                     device,  and the current medium has been completely read,
                     replace the medium and press RETURN to  continue  to  the
                     next medium. This option is used only with the -i option.


       -k            Attempts  to  skip  corrupted file headers and I/O errors
                     that might be encountered. If you want to copy files from
                     a  medium  that  is  corrupted  or  out of sequence, this
                     option lets you read only those files with good  headers.
                     For cpio archives that contain other cpio archives, if an
                     error is encountered,  cpio  can  terminate  prematurely.
                     cpio  finds  the next good header, which can be one for a
                     smaller archive, and terminate when the smaller archive's
                     trailer is encountered. Use only with the -i option.


       -l            In  pass  mode,  makes  hard links between the source and
                     destination whenever possible. If the -L option  is  also
                     specified,  the  hard  link is to the file referred to by
                     the symbolic link. Otherwise, the hard  link  is  to  the
                     symbolic link itself. Use only with the -p option.


       -L            Follows symbolic links. If a symbolic link to a directory
                     is encountered, archives the directory referred to by the
                     link, using the name of the link. Otherwise, archives the
                     file referred to by the link, using the name of the link.


       -m            Retains previous file modification time. This  option  is
                     ineffective on directories that are being copied.


       -M message    Defines  a  message to use when switching media. When you
                     use the -O or -I options and specify a character  special
                     device,  you  can  use  this option to define the message
                     that is printed when you reach the end of the medium. One
                     %d  can be placed in message to print the sequence number
                     of the next medium needed to continue.


       -O file       Directs the output of cpio to file, instead of the  stan‐
                     dard  output.  If  file is a character special device and
                     the current medium is full, replace the medium and type a
                     carriage  return to continue to the next medium. Use only
                     with the -o option.


       -P            Preserves ACLs. If the option is used for output,  exist‐
                     ing  ACLs are written along with other attributes, except
                     for extended attributes, to the standard output. ACLs are
                     created as special files with a special file type. If the
                     option is used for input,  existing  ACLs  are  extracted
                     along  with  other  attributes  from  standard input. The
                     option recognizes the  special  file  type.  Notice  that
                     errors occurs if a cpio archive with ACLs is extracted by
                     previous versions of cpio. This option should not be used
                     with  the  -c option, as ACL support might not be present
                     on all systems, and hence  is  not  portable.  Use  ASCII
                     headers for portability.


       -r            Interactively renames files. If the user types a carriage
                     return alone, the file is skipped. If the  user  types  a
                     ``.'',  the  original pathname is retained. Not available
                     with cpio  -p.


       -R id         Reassigns ownership and group information for  each  file
                     to  user ID. (ID must be a valid login ID from the passwd
                     database.) This option is  valid  only  when  id  is  the
                     invoking user or the super-user. See NOTES.


       -s            Swaps bytes within each half word.


       -S            Swaps halfwords within each word.


       -t            Prints  a  table of contents of the input. If any file in
                     the table of contents has extended attributes, these  are
                     also listed. No files are created. -t and -V are mutually
                     exclusive.


       -u            Copies unconditionally. Normally, an older  file  is  not
                     replaced  a  newer  file  with the same name, although an
                     older directory updates a newer directory.


       -v            Verbose. Prints a list of  file  and  extended  attribute
                     names.  When  used  with the -t option, the table of con‐
                     tents looks like the output of an  ls   -l  command  (see
                     ls(1)).


       -V            Special verbose. Prints a dot for each file read or writ‐
                     ten. Useful to assure the user that cpio is working with‐
                     out printing out all file names.


       -6            Processes  a  UNIX  System  Sixth  Edition archive format
                     file. Use only with the -i option. This option  is  mutu‐
                     ally exclusive with -c and -H.


       -@            Includes extended attributes in archive. By default, cpio
                     does not place extended attributes in the  archive.  With
                     this  flag,  cpio  looks  for  extended attributes on the
                     files to be placed in the archive and add them, as  regu‐
                     lar  files,  to the archive. The extended attribute files
                     go in the archive as  special  files  with  special  file
                     types.  When  the  -@  flag  is  used  with  -i or -p, it
                     instructs cpio to restore extended attribute  data  along
                     with  the  normal file data. Extended attribute files can
                     only be extracted from an archive as  part  of  a  normal
                     file  extract.  Attempts  to explicitly extract attribute
                     records are ignored.


       -/            Includes  extended  system  attributes  in  archive.   By
                     default,  cpio  does not place extended system attributes
                     in the archive. With this flag, cpio looks  for  extended
                     system  attributes  on  the files to be placed in the ar‐
                     chive and add them, as regular files, to the archive. The
                     extended  attribute  files  go  in the archive as special
                     files with special file types. When the -/ flag  is  used
                     with -i or -p, it instructs cpio to restore extended sys‐
                     tem attribute data  along  with  the  normal  file  data.
                     Extended  system  attribute  files  can only be extracted
                     from an  archive  as  part  of  a  normal  file  extract.
                     Attempts  to  explicitly  extract  attribute  records are
                     ignored.


OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       directory    A path name of an existing directory to  be  used  as  the
                    target of cpio  -p.


       pattern      Expressions making use of a pattern-matching notation sim‐
                    ilar to that used by the shell (see  sh(1))  for  filename
                    pattern  matching, and similar to regular expressions. The
                    following metacharacters are defined:


                    *        Matches any string, including the empty string.


                    ?        Matches any single character.


                    [...]    Matches any one of  the  enclosed  characters.  A
                             pair  of  characters separated by `−' matches any
                             symbol between the pair (inclusive),  as  defined
                             by  the system default collating sequence. If the
                             first character following the opening  `['  is  a
                             `!', the results are unspecified.


                    !        The ! (exclamation point) means not. For example,
                             the !abc* pattern would exclude  all  files  that
                             begin with abc.

                    In pattern, metacharacters ?, *, and [...] match the slash
                    (/) character, and backslash (\) is an  escape  character.
                    Multiple  cases of pattern can be specified and if no pat‐
                    tern is specified, the default for pattern is * (that  is,
                    select all files).

                    Each pattern must be enclosed in double quotes. Otherwise,
                    the name of a file in the current directory might be used.


EXAMPLES
       The following examples show three uses of cpio.

       Example 1 Using standard input


         example% ls | cpio -oc > ../newfile




       When standard input is directed through a pipe to cpio  -o, as  in  the
       example  above,  it  groups  the files so they can be directed (>) to a
       single file (../newfile). The -c option insures that the file is porta‐
       ble  to  other machines (as would the -H option). Instead of ls(1), you
       could use find(1), echo(1), cat(1), and so on, to pipe a list of  names
       to cpio. You could direct the output to a device instead of a file.

       Example 2 Extracting files into directories


         example% cat newfile | cpio -icd "memo/a1" "memo/b*"




       In  this  example,  cpio  -i uses the output file of cpio  -o (directed
       through a pipe with cat), extracts those files that match the  patterns
       (memo/a1,  memo/b*), creates directories below the current directory as
       needed (-d option), and places the files in  the  appropriate  directo‐
       ries. The -c option is used if the input file was created with a porta‐
       ble header. If no patterns were given, all files from newfile would  be
       placed in the directory.

       Example 3 Copying or linking files to another directory


         example% find . -depth -print | cpio -pdlmv newdir




       In  this  example, cpio  -p takes the file names piped to it and copies
       or links (-l option) those files to another directory, newdir.  The  -d
       option  says  to  create  directories  as needed. The -m option says to
       retain the modification time. (It is important to use the -depth option
       of  find(1)  to  generate path names for cpio. This eliminates problems
       that cpio could have trying to create files  under  read-only  directo‐
       ries.) The destination directory, newdir, must exist.


       Notice  that when you use cpio in conjunction with find, if you use the
       -L option with cpio, you must use the -follow option with find and vice
       versa. Otherwise, there are undesirable results.


       For  multi-reel  archives,  dismount the old volume, mount the new one,
       and continue to the next tape by typing the name  of  the  next  device
       (probably  the same as the first reel). To stop, type a RETURN and cpio
       ends.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of cpio: LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME, TZ, and NLSPATH.

       TMPDIR    cpio creates its temporary file in /var/tmp by default.  Oth‐
                 erwise, it uses the directory specified by TMPDIR.


EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.


       >0    An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled  _  Interface
       StabilityCommitted


SEE ALSO
       sh(1),   ar(1),   cat(1),  echo(1),  find(1),  ls(1),  pax(1),  tar(1),
       chown(2),  archives.h(3HEAD),  attributes(7),  environ(7),   fsattr(7),
       standards(7)

NOTES
       The maximum path name length allowed in a cpio archive is determined by
       the header type involved. The following table shows  the  proper  value
       for each supported archive header type.


       tab(); lw(1.83i) lw(1.83i) lw(1.83i) lw(1.83i) lw(1.83i) lw(1.83i)


       Header  typeCommand  line optionsMaximum path name length BINARY"-o"256
       POSIX"-oH odc"256 ASCII"-oc"1023 CRC"-oH crc"1023 USTAR"-oH ustar"255



       When the command line options "-o  -H  tar" are specified, the  archive
       created  is  of type USTAR. This means that it is an error to read this
       same archive using the command line options "-i  -H  tar". The  archive
       should  be  read  using  the  command line options "-i  -H  ustar". The
       options "-i  -H  tar" refer to an older tar archive format.


       An error message is output for files whose UID or GID are too large  to
       fit in the selected header format. Use -H  crc or -c to create archives
       that allow all UID or GID values.


       Only the super-user can copy special files.


       Blocks are reported in 512-byte quantities.


       If a file has 000 permissions, contains more than 0 characters of data,
       and the user is not root, the file is not saved or restored.


       When  cpio  is  invoked  in  Copy  In  or  Pass  Mode  by  a  user with
       {PRIV_FILE_CHOWN_SELF} privilege, and in particular on a  system  where
       {_POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED}  is  not in effect (effectively granting this
       privilege to all users where not overridden), extracted or copied files
       can  end  up with owners and groups determined by those of the original
       archived files, which can differ from the invoking user's.  This  might
       not be what the user intended. The -R option can be used to retain file
       ownership, if desired, if you specify the user's id.


       The inode number stored in the header (/usr/include/archives.h)  is  an
       unsigned  short,  which is 2 bytes. This limits the range of inode num‐
       bers from 0 to 65535. Files which are hard linked  must  fall  in  this
       inode  range. This could be a problem when moving cpio archives between
       different vendors' machines.


       You must use the same blocking factor when you retrieve or  copy  files
       from  the  tape  to the hard disk as you did when you copied files from
       the hard disk to the tape. Therefore, you must specify  the  -B  or  -C
       option.


       During  -p  and  -o processing, cpio buffers the file list presented on
       stdin in a temporary file.


       The new pax(1) format, with a command that supports  it  (for  example,
       tar),  should  be  used  for large files. The cpio command is no longer
       part of the current POSIX standard and is deprecated in favor of pax.



Oracle Solaris 11.4               31 Jan 2018                          cpio(1)
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