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dirs(1)

cd(1)                            User Commands                           cd(1)



NAME
       cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/cd [directory]

   sh
       cd [argument]


       chdir [argument]

   csh
       cd [dir]


       chdir [dir]


       pushd [+n | dir]


       popd [+n]


       dirs [-l]

   ksh88, ksh
       cd [-L] [-P] [arg]


       cd old new

DESCRIPTION
   /usr/bin/cd
       The /usr/bin/cd utility changes the current directory in the context of
       the cd utility only. This is in contrast to the version built into  the
       shell.  /usr/bin/cd  has  no  effect on the invoking process but can be
       used to determine whether or not a given directory can be  set  as  the
       current directory.

   sh
       The Bourne shell built-in cd changes the current directory to argument.
       The shell parameter HOME is the default argument. The  shell  parameter
       CDPATH  defines  the search path for the directory containing argument.
       Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:).  The  default
       path  is  <null> (specifying the current directory). The current direc‐
       tory is specified by a null path name,  which  can  appear  immediately
       after  the  equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere else in
       the path list. If argument begins with `/', `.', or  `..',  the  search
       path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for
       argument. cd must have execute (search) permission in argument. Because
       a  new process is created to execute each command, cd would be ineffec‐
       tive if it were written as a normal command; therefore,  it  is  recog‐
       nized  by  and  is  internal  to  the  shell.  (See  pwd(1), sh(1), and
       chdir(2)).


       chdir is just another way to call cd.

   csh
       If dir is not specified, the C shell built-in  cd  uses  the  value  of
       shell  parameter  HOME as the new working directory. If dir specifies a
       complete path starting with `/', `.', or  `..',  dir  becomes  the  new
       working directory. If neither case applies, cd tries to find the desig‐
       nated directory relative to one of the paths specified  by  the  CDPATH
       shell  variable.  CDPATH  has the same syntax as, and similar semantics
       to, the PATH shell variable. cd must have execute  (search)  permission
       in  dir.  Because  a new process is created to execute each command, cd
       would be ineffective if it were written as a normal command; therefore,
       it is recognized by and is internal to the C-shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1),
       and chdir(2)).


       chdir changes the shell's working directory to  directory  dir.  If  no
       argument  is given, change to the home directory of the user. If dir is
       a relative pathname not found in the current directory, check for it in
       those  directories listed in the cdpath variable. If dir is the name of
       a shell variable whose value starts with a /, change to  the  directory
       named by that value.


       pushd  pushes  a directory onto the directory stack. With no arguments,
       exchange the top two elements.

       +n     Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.


       dir    Push the current working directory onto the stack and change  to
              dir.



       popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The ele‐
       ments of the directory stack are numbered from 0 starting at the top.

       +n    Discard the n'th entry in the stack.



       dirs prints the directory stack, most recent to  the  left;  the  first
       directory shown is the current directory. With the -l argument, produce
       an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~ notation is suppressed.

   ksh88, ksh
       The Korn shell built-in cd command can be in either of  two  forms.  In
       the first form it changes the current directory to arg. If arg is − the
       directory is changed to the previous directory. The shell variable HOME
       is  the default arg. The environment variable PWD is set to the current
       directory. If the PWD is changed, the OLDPWD environment variable shall
       also be changed to the value of the old working directory, that is, the
       current working directory immediately  prior  to  the  call  to  change
       directory  (cd).  The shell variable CDPATH defines the search path for
       the directory containing arg. Alternative directory names are separated
       by a colon (:). The default path is null (specifying the current direc‐
       tory). The current directory is specified by a null  path  name,  which
       can appear immediately after the equal sign or between the colon delim‐
       iters anywhere else in the path list. If arg begins with a `/', `.', or
       `..',  then  the  search path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in
       the path is searched for arg. If unsuccessful, cd  attempts  to  change
       directories to the pathname formed by the concatenation of the value of
       PWD, a slash character, and arg.

       -L    Handles the operation dot-dot (..) logically. Symbolic link  com‐
             ponents are not resolved before dot-dot components are processed.


       -P    Handles  the operand dot-dot physically. Symbolic link components
             are resolved before dot-dot components are processed.



       If both -L and -P options are specified, the last option to be  invoked
       is  used  and  the other is ignored. If neither -L nor -P is specified,
       the operand is handled dot-dot logically.


       The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old  in
       the  current directory name, PWD and tries to change to this new direc‐
       tory.


       The cd command cannot be executed by rksh. Because  a  new  process  is
       created  to  execute  each  command, cd would be ineffective if it were
       written as a normal command; therefore, it  is  recognized  by  and  is
       internal to the Korn shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       directory    An  absolute  or  relative  pathname of the directory that
                    becomes the new working directory. The interpretation of a
                    relative  pathname by cd depends on the CDPATH environment
                    variable.


OUTPUT
       If a non-empty directory name from CDPATH is used, an absolute pathname
       of  the new working directory is written to the standard output as fol‐
       lows:


       "%s\n", <new directory>


       Otherwise, there is no output.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of cd: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       CDPATH    A colon-separated list of pathnames that  refer  to  directo‐
                 ries.  If the directory operand does not begin with a slash (
                 /  ) character, and the first component is not  dot  or  dot-
                 dot,  cd  searches  for  directory relative to each directory
                 named in the CDPATH variable, in the order  listed.  The  new
                 working directory sets to the first matching directory found.
                 An empty string in place of a directory  pathname  represents
                 the current directory. If CDPATH is not set, it is treated as
                 if it were an empty string.


       HOME      The name of the home directory, used when no directory  oper‐
                 and is specified.


       OLDPWD    A pathname of the previous working directory, used by cd-.


       PWD       A  pathname of the current working directory, set by cd after
                 it has changed to that directory.


EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned by cd:

       0     The directory was successfully changed.


       >0    An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   csh, ksh88, sh
       tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE  TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _ Interface StabilityCommit‐
       ted _ StandardSee standards(7).


   ksh
       tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE  TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE  VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _ Interface StabilityUncom‐
       mitted


SEE ALSO
       csh(1), ksh(1), ksh88(1), pwd(1), sh(1), chdir(2), attributes(7), envi‐
       ron(7), standards(7)



Oracle Solaris 11.4               12 Jul 2011                            cd(1)
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