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sudo(1m)

SUDO(1m)                    System Manager's Manual                   SUDO(1m)



NAME
       sudo, sudoedit - execute a command as another user

SYNOPSIS
       sudo -h | -K | -k | -V
       sudo -v [-ABknS] [-g group] [-h host] [-p prompt] [-u user]
       sudo -l [-ABknS] [-g group] [-h host] [-p prompt] [-U user] [-u user]
            [command]
       sudo [-ABbEHnPS] [-C num] [-g group] [-h host] [-p prompt] [-T timeout]
            [-u user] [VAR=value] [-i | -s] [command]
       sudoedit [-ABknS] [-C num] [-g group] [-h host] [-p prompt]
                [-T timeout] [-u user] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       sudo allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or
       another user, as specified by the security policy.  The invoking user's
       real (not effective) user-ID is used to determine the user name with
       which to query the security policy.

       sudo supports a plugin architecture for security policies and
       input/output logging.  Third parties can develop and distribute their
       own policy and I/O logging plugins to work seamlessly with the sudo
       front end.  The default security policy is sudoers, which is configured
       via the file /etc/sudoers, or via LDAP.  See the Plugins section for
       more information.

       The security policy determines what privileges, if any, a user has to
       run sudo.  The policy may require that users authenticate themselves
       with a password or another authentication mechanism.  If authentication
       is required, sudo will exit if the user's password is not entered
       within a configurable time limit.  This limit is policy-specific; the
       default password prompt timeout for the sudoers security policy is 5
       minutes.

       Security policies may support credential caching to allow the user to
       run sudo again for a period of time without requiring authentication.
       By default, the sudoers policy caches credentials on a per-terminal
       basis for 5 minutes.  See the timestamp_type and timestamp_timeout
       options in sudoers(4) for more information.  By running sudo with the
       -v option, a user can update the cached credentials without running a
       command.

       When invoked as sudoedit, the -e option (described below), is implied.

       Security policies may log successful and failed attempts to use sudo.
       If an I/O plugin is configured, the running command's input and output
       may be logged as well.

       The options are as follows:

       -A, --askpass
                   Normally, if sudo requires a password, it will read it from
                   the user's terminal.  If the -A (askpass) option is
                   specified, a (possibly graphical) helper program is
                   executed to read the user's password and output the
                   password to the standard output.  If the SUDO_ASKPASS
                   environment variable is set, it specifies the path to the
                   helper program.  Otherwise, if sudo.conf(4) contains a line
                   specifying the askpass program, that value will be used.
                   For example:

                       # Path to askpass helper program
                       Path askpass /usr/X11R6/bin/ssh-askpass

                   If no askpass program is available, sudo will exit with an
                   error.

       -B, --bell  Ring the bell as part of the password promp when a terminal
                   is present.  This option has no effect if an askpass
                   program is used.

       -b, --background
                   Run the given command in the background.  Note that it is
                   not possible to use shell job control to manipulate
                   background processes started by sudo.  Most interactive
                   commands will fail to work properly in background mode.

       -C num, --close-from=num
                   Close all file descriptors greater than or equal to num
                   before executing a command.  Values less than three are not
                   permitted.  By default, sudo will close all open file
                   descriptors other than standard input, standard output and
                   standard error when executing a command.  The security
                   policy may restrict the user's ability to use this option.
                   The sudoers policy only permits use of the -C option when
                   the administrator has enabled the closefrom_override
                   option.

       -E, --preserve-env
                   Indicates to the security policy that the user wishes to
                   preserve their existing environment variables.  The
                   security policy may return an error if the user does not
                   have permission to preserve the environment.

       --preserve-env=list
                   Indicates to the security policy that the user wishes to
                   add the comma-separated list of environment variables to
                   those preserved from the user's environment.  The security
                   policy may return an error if the user does not have
                   permission to preserve the environment.  This option may be
                   specified multiple times.

       -e, --edit  Edit one or more files instead of running a command.  In
                   lieu of a path name, the string "sudoedit" is used when
                   consulting the security policy.  If the user is authorized
                   by the policy, the following steps are taken:

                       1.   Temporary copies are made of the files to be
                            edited with the owner set to the invoking user.

                       2.   The editor specified by the policy is run to edit
                            the temporary files.  The sudoers policy uses the
                            SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL and EDITOR environment
                            variables (in that order).  If none of
                            SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or EDITOR are set, the first
                            program listed in the editor sudoers(4) option is
                            used.

                       3.   If they have been modified, the temporary files
                            are copied back to their original location and the
                            temporary versions are removed.

                   To help prevent the editing of unauthorized files, the
                   following restrictions are enforced unless explicitly
                   allowed by the security policy:

                                   ·  Symbolic links may not be edited
                                      (version 1.8.15 and higher).

                                   ·  Symbolic links along the path to be
                                      edited are not followed when the parent
                                      directory is writable by the invoking
                                      user unless that user is root (version
                                      1.8.16 and higher).

                                   ·  Files located in a directory that is
                                      writable by the invoking user may not be
                                      edited unless that user is root (version
                                      1.8.16 and higher).

                   Users are never allowed to edit device special files.

                   If the specified file does not exist, it will be created.
                   Note that unlike most commands run by sudo, the editor is
                   run with the invoking user's environment unmodified.  If,
                   for some reason, sudo is unable to update a file with its
                   edited version, the user will receive a warning and the
                   edited copy will remain in a temporary file.

       -g group, --group=group
                   Run the command with the primary group set to group instead
                   of the primary group specified by the target user's
                   password database entry.  The group may be either a group
                   name or a numeric group-ID (GID) prefixed with the ‘#’
                   character (e.g., #0 for GID 0).  When running a command as
                   a GID, many shells require that the ‘#’ be escaped with a
                   backslash (‘\’).  If no -u option is specified, the command
                   will be run as the invoking user.  In either case, the
                   primary group will be set to group.  The sudoers policy
                   permits any of the target user's groups to be specified via
                   the -g option as long as the -P option is not in use.

       -H, --set-home
                   Request that the security policy set the HOME environment
                   variable to the home directory specified by the target
                   user's password database entry.  Depending on the policy,
                   this may be the default behavior.

       -h, --help  Display a short help message to the standard output and
                   exit.

       -h host, --host=host
                   Run the command on the specified host if the security
                   policy plugin supports remote commands.  Note that the
                   sudoers plugin does not currently support running remote
                   commands.  This may also be used in conjunction with the -l
                   option to list a user's privileges for the remote host.

       -i, --login Run the shell specified by the target user's password
                   database entry as a login shell.  This means that login-
                   specific resource files such as .profile, .bash_profile or
                   .login will be read by the shell.  If a command is
                   specified, it is passed to the shell for execution via the
                   shell's -c option.  If no command is specified, an
                   interactive shell is executed.  sudo attempts to change to
                   that user's home directory before running the shell.  The
                   command is run with an environment similar to the one a
                   user would receive at log in.  Note that most shells behave
                   differently when a command is specified as compared to an
                   interactive session; consult the shell's manual for
                   details.  The Command environment section in the sudoers(4)
                   manual documents how the -i option affects the environment
                   in which a command is run when the sudoers policy is in
                   use.

       -K, --remove-timestamp
                   Similar to the -k option, except that it removes the user's
                   cached credentials entirely and may not be used in
                   conjunction with a command or other option.  This option
                   does not require a password.  Not all security policies
                   support credential caching.

       -k, --reset-timestamp
                   When used without a command, invalidates the user's cached
                   credentials.  In other words, the next time sudo is run a
                   password will be required.  This option does not require a
                   password and was added to allow a user to revoke sudo
                   permissions from a .logout file.

                   When used in conjunction with a command or an option that
                   may require a password, this option will cause sudo to
                   ignore the user's cached credentials.  As a result, sudo
                   will prompt for a password (if one is required by the
                   security policy) and will not update the user's cached
                   credentials.

                   Not all security policies support credential caching.

       -l, --list  If no command is specified, list the allowed (and
                   forbidden) commands for the invoking user (or the user
                   specified by the -U option) on the current host.  A longer
                   list format is used if this option is specified multiple
                   times and the security policy supports a verbose output
                   format.

                   If a command is specified and is permitted by the security
                   policy, the fully-qualified path to the command is
                   displayed along with any command line arguments.  If a
                   command is specified but not allowed by the policy, sudo
                   will exit with a status value of 1.

       -n, --non-interactive
                   Avoid prompting the user for input of any kind.  If a
                   password is required for the command to run, sudo will
                   display an error message and exit.

       -P, --preserve-groups
                   Preserve the invoking user's group vector unaltered.  By
                   default, the sudoers policy will initialize the group
                   vector to the list of groups the target user is a member
                   of.  The real and effective group-IDs, however, are still
                   set to match the target user.

       -p prompt, --prompt=prompt
                   Use a custom password prompt with optional escape
                   sequences.  The following percent (‘%’) escape sequences
                   are supported by the sudoers policy:

                   %H  expanded to the host name including the domain name (on
                       if the machine's host name is fully qualified or the
                       fqdn option is set in sudoers(4))

                   %h  expanded to the local host name without the domain name

                   %p  expanded to the name of the user whose password is
                       being requested (respects the rootpw, targetpw, and
                       runaspw flags in sudoers(4))

                   %U  expanded to the login name of the user the command will
                       be run as (defaults to root unless the -u option is
                       also specified)

                   %u  expanded to the invoking user's login name

                   %%  two consecutive ‘%’ characters are collapsed into a
                       single ‘%’ character

                   The custom prompt will override the default prompt
                   specified by either the security policy or the SUDO_PROMPT
                   environment variable.  On systems that use PAM, the custom
                   prompt will also override the prompt specified by a PAM
                   module unless the passprompt_override flag is disabled in
                   sudoers.

       -S, --stdin Write the prompt to the standard error and read the
                   password from the standard input instead of using the
                   terminal device.

       -s, --shell Run the shell specified by the SHELL environment variable
                   if it is set or the shell specified by the invoking user's
                   password database entry.  If a command is specified, it is
                   passed to the shell for execution via the shell's -c
                   option.  If no command is specified, an interactive shell
                   is executed.  Note that most shells behave differently when
                   a command is specified as compared to an interactive
                   session; consult the shell's manual for details.

       -U user, --other-user=user
                   Used in conjunction with the -l option to list the
                   privileges for user instead of for the invoking user.  The
                   security policy may restrict listing other users'
                   privileges.  The sudoers policy only allows root or a user
                   with the ALL privilege on the current host to use this
                   option.

       -T timeout, --command-timeout=timeout
                   Used to set a timeout for the command.  If the timeout
                   expires before the command has exited, the command will be
                   terminated.  The security policy may restrict the ability
                   to set command timeouts.  The sudoers policy requires that
                   user-specified timeouts be explicitly enabled.

       -u user, --user=user
                   Run the command as a user other than the default target
                   user (usually root).  The user may be either a user name or
                   a numeric user-ID (UID) prefixed with the ‘#’ character
                   (e.g., #0 for UID 0).  When running commands as a UID, many
                   shells require that the ‘#’ be escaped with a backslash
                   (‘\’).  Some security policies may restrict UIDs to those
                   listed in the password database.  The sudoers policy allows
                   UIDs that are not in the password database as long as the
                   targetpw option is not set.  Other security policies may
                   not support this.

       -V, --version
                   Print the sudo version string as well as the version string
                   of the security policy plugin and any I/O plugins.  If the
                   invoking user is already root the -V option will display
                   the arguments passed to configure when sudo was built and
                   plugins may display more verbose information such as
                   default options.

       -v, --validate
                   Update the user's cached credentials, authenticating the
                   user if necessary.  For the sudoers plugin, this extends
                   the sudo timeout for another 5 minutes by default, but does
                   not run a command.  Not all security policies support
                   cached credentials.

       --          The -- option indicates that sudo should stop processing
                   command line arguments.

       Options that take a value may only be specified once unless otherwise
       indicated in the description.  This is to help guard against problems
       caused by poorly written scripts that invoke sudo with user-controlled
       input.

       Environment variables to be set for the command may also be passed on
       the command line in the form of VAR=value, e.g.,
       LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/pkg/lib.  Variables passed on the command
       line are subject to restrictions imposed by the security policy plugin.
       The sudoers policy subjects variables passed on the command line to the
       same restrictions as normal environment variables with one important
       exception.  If the setenv option is set in sudoers, the command to be
       run has the SETENV tag set or the command matched is ALL, the user may
       set variables that would otherwise be forbidden.  See sudoers(4) for
       more information.

COMMAND EXECUTION
       When sudo executes a command, the security policy specifies the
       execution environment for the command.  Typically, the real and
       effective user and group and IDs are set to match those of the target
       user, as specified in the password database, and the group vector is
       initialized based on the group database (unless the -P option was
       specified).

       The following parameters may be specified by security policy:

       ·  real and effective user-ID

       ·  real and effective group-ID

       ·  supplementary group-IDs

       ·  the environment list

       ·  current working directory

       ·  file creation mode mask (umask)

       ·  Solaris project

       ·  Solaris privileges

       ·  scheduling priority (aka nice value)

   Process model
       There are two distinct ways sudo can run a command.

       If an I/O logging plugin is configured or if the security policy
       explicitly requests it, a new pseudo-terminal (“pty”) is allocated and
       fork(2) is used to create a second sudo process, referred to as the
       monitor.  The monitor creates a new terminal session with itself as the
       leader and the pty as its controlling terminal, calls fork(2), sets up
       the execution environment as described above, and then uses the
       execve(2) system call to run the command in the child process.  The
       monitor exists to relay job control signals between the user's existing
       terminal and the pty the command is being run in.  This makes it
       possible to suspend and resume the command.  Without the monitor, the
       command would be in what POSIX terms an “orphaned process group” and it
       would not receive any job control signals from the kernel.  When the
       command exits or is terminated by a signal, the monitor passes the
       command's exit status to the main sudo process and exits.  After
       receiving the command's exit status, the main sudo passes the command's
       exit status to the security policy's close function and exits.

       If no pty is used, sudo calls fork(2), sets up the execution
       environment as described above, and uses the execve(2) system call to
       run the command in the child process.  The main sudo process waits
       until the command has completed, then passes the command's exit status
       to the security policy's close function and exits.  As a special case,
       if the policy plugin does not define a close function, sudo will
       execute the command directly instead of calling fork(2) first.  The
       sudoers policy plugin will only define a close function when I/O
       logging is enabled, a pty is required, or the pam_session or
       pam_setcred options are enabled.  Note that pam_session and pam_setcred
       are enabled by default on systems using PAM.

       On systems that use PAM, the security policy's close function is
       responsible for closing the PAM session.  It may also log the command's
       exit status.

   Signal handling
       When the command is run as a child of the sudo process, sudo will relay
       signals it receives to the command.  The SIGINT and SIGQUIT signals are
       only relayed when the command is being run in a new pty or when the
       signal was sent by a user process, not the kernel.  This prevents the
       command from receiving SIGINT twice each time the user enters control-
       C.  Some signals, such as SIGSTOP and SIGKILL, cannot be caught and
       thus will not be relayed to the command.  As a general rule, SIGTSTP
       should be used instead of SIGSTOP when you wish to suspend a command
       being run by sudo.

       As a special case, sudo will not relay signals that were sent by the
       command it is running.  This prevents the command from accidentally
       killing itself.  On some systems, the reboot(1m) command sends SIGTERM
       to all non-system processes other than itself before rebooting the
       system.  This prevents sudo from relaying the SIGTERM signal it
       received back to reboot(1m), which might then exit before the system
       was actually rebooted, leaving it in a half-dead state similar to
       single user mode.  Note, however, that this check only applies to the
       command run by sudo and not any other processes that the command may
       create.  As a result, running a script that calls reboot(1m) or
       shutdown(1m) via sudo may cause the system to end up in this undefined
       state unless the reboot(1m) or shutdown(1m) are run using the exec()
       family of functions instead of system() (which interposes a shell
       between the command and the calling process).

       If no I/O logging plugins are loaded and the policy plugin has not
       defined a close() function, set a command timeout or required that the
       command be run in a new pty, sudo may execute the command directly
       instead of running it as a child process.

   Plugins
       Plugins may be specified via Plugin directives in the sudo.conf(4)
       file.  They may be loaded as dynamic shared objects (on systems that
       support them), or compiled directly into the sudo binary.  If no
       sudo.conf(4) file is present, or it contains no Plugin lines, sudo will
       use the traditional sudoers security policy and I/O logging.  See the
       sudo.conf(4) manual for details of the /etc/sudo.conf file and the
       sudo_plugin(4) manual for more information about the sudo plugin
       architecture.

EXIT VALUE
       Upon successful execution of a command, the exit status from sudo will
       be the exit status of the program that was executed.  If the command
       terminated due to receipt of a signal, sudo will send itself the same
       signal that terminated the command.

       If the -l option was specified without a command, sudo will exit with a
       value of 0 if the user is allowed to run sudo and they authenticated
       successfully (as required by the security policy).  If a command is
       specified with the -l option, the exit value will only be 0 if the
       command is permitted by the security policy, otherwise it will be 1.

       If there is an authentication failure, a configuration/permission
       problem or if the given command cannot be executed, sudo exits with a
       value of 1.  In the latter case, the error string is printed to the
       standard error.  If sudo cannot stat(2) one or more entries in the
       user's PATH, an error is printed to the standard error.  (If the
       directory does not exist or if it is not really a directory, the entry
       is ignored and no error is printed.)  This should not happen under
       normal circumstances.  The most common reason for stat(2) to return
       “permission denied” is if you are running an automounter and one of the
       directories in your PATH is on a machine that is currently unreachable.

SECURITY NOTES
       sudo tries to be safe when executing external commands.

       To prevent command spoofing, sudo checks "." and "" (both denoting
       current directory) last when searching for a command in the user's PATH
       (if one or both are in the PATH).  Note, however, that the actual PATH
       environment variable is not modified and is passed unchanged to the
       program that sudo executes.

       Users should never be granted sudo privileges to execute files that are
       writable by the user or that reside in a directory that is writable by
       the user.  If the user can modify or replace the command there is no
       way to limit what additional commands they can run.

       Please note that sudo will normally only log the command it explicitly
       runs.  If a user runs a command such as sudo su or sudo sh, subsequent
       commands run from that shell are not subject to sudo's security policy.
       The same is true for commands that offer shell escapes (including most
       editors).  If I/O logging is enabled, subsequent commands will have
       their input and/or output logged, but there will not be traditional
       logs for those commands.  Because of this, care must be taken when
       giving users access to commands via sudo to verify that the command
       does not inadvertently give the user an effective root shell.  For more
       information, please see the Preventing shell escapes section in
       sudoers(4).

       To prevent the disclosure of potentially sensitive information, sudo
       disables core dumps by default while it is executing (they are re-
       enabled for the command that is run).  This historical practice dates
       from a time when most operating systems allowed set-user-ID processes
       to dump core by default.  To aid in debugging sudo crashes, you may
       wish to re-enable core dumps by setting “disable_coredump” to false in
       the sudo.conf(4) file as follows:

             Set disable_coredump false

       See the sudo.conf(4) manual for more information.

ENVIRONMENT
       sudo utilizes the following environment variables.  The security policy
       has control over the actual content of the command's environment.

       EDITOR           Default editor to use in -e (sudoedit) mode if neither
                        SUDO_EDITOR nor VISUAL is set.

       MAIL             Set to the mail spool of the target user when the -i
                        option is specified or when env_reset is enabled in
                        sudoers (unless MAIL is present in the env_keep list).

       HOME             Set to the home directory of the target user when the
                        -i or -H options are specified, when the -s option is
                        specified and set_home is set in sudoers, when
                        always_set_home is enabled in sudoers, or when
                        env_reset is enabled in sudoers and HOME is not
                        present in the env_keep list.

       LOGNAME          Set to the login name of the target user when the -i
                        option is specified, when the set_logname option is
                        enabled in sudoers or when the env_reset option is
                        enabled in sudoers (unless LOGNAME is present in the
                        env_keep list).

       PATH             May be overridden by the security policy.

       SHELL            Used to determine shell to run with -s option.

       SUDO_ASKPASS     Specifies the path to a helper program used to read
                        the password if no terminal is available or if the -A
                        option is specified.

       SUDO_COMMAND     Set to the command run by sudo, including command line
                        arguments.  The command line arguments are truncated
                        at 4096 characters to prevent a potential execution
                        error.

       SUDO_EDITOR      Default editor to use in -e (sudoedit) mode.

       SUDO_GID         Set to the group-ID of the user who invoked sudo.

       SUDO_PROMPT      Used as the default password prompt unless the -p
                        option was specified.

       SUDO_PS1         If set, PS1 will be set to its value for the program
                        being run.

       SUDO_UID         Set to the user-ID of the user who invoked sudo.

       SUDO_USER        Set to the login name of the user who invoked sudo.

       USER             Set to the same value as LOGNAME, described above.

       VISUAL           Default editor to use in -e (sudoedit) mode if
                        SUDO_EDITOR is not set.

FILES
       /etc/sudo.conf            sudo front end configuration

EXAMPLES
       Note: the following examples assume a properly configured security
       policy.

       To get a file listing of an unreadable directory:

             $ sudo ls /usr/local/protected

       To list the home directory of user yaz on a machine where the file
       system holding ~yaz is not exported as root:

             $ sudo -u yaz ls ~yaz

       To edit the index.html file as user www:

             $ sudoedit -u www ~www/htdocs/index.html

       To view system logs only accessible to root and users in the adm group:

             $ sudo -g adm more /var/log/syslog

       To run an editor as jim with a different primary group:

             $ sudoedit -u jim -g audio ~jim/sound.txt

       To shut down a machine:

             $ sudo shutdown -r +15 "quick reboot"

       To make a usage listing of the directories in the /home partition.
       Note that this runs the commands in a sub-shell to make the cd and file
       redirection work.

             $ sudo sh -c "cd /home ; du -s * | sort -rn > USAGE"

DIAGNOSTICS
       Error messages produced by sudo include:

       editing files in a writable directory is not permitted
             By default, sudoedit does not permit editing a file when any of
             the parent directories are writable by the invoking user.  This
             avoids a race condition that could allow the user to overwrite an
             arbitrary file.  See the sudoedit_checkdir option in sudoers(4)
             for more information.

       editing symbolic links is not permitted
             By default, sudoedit does not follow symbolic links when opening
             files.  See the sudoedit_follow option in sudoers(4) for more
             information.

       effective uid is not 0, is sudo installed setuid root?
             sudo was not run with root privileges.  The sudo binary must be
             owned by the root user and have the set-user-ID bit set.  Also,
             it must not be located on a file system mounted with the ‘nosuid’
             option or on an NFS file system that maps uid 0 to an
             unprivileged uid.

       effective uid is not 0, is sudo on a file system with the 'nosuid'
       option set or an NFS file system without root privileges?
             sudo was not run with root privileges.  The sudo binary has the
             proper owner and permissions but it still did not run with root
             privileges.  The most common reason for this is that the file
             system the sudo binary is located on is mounted with the ‘nosuid’
             option or it is an NFS file system that maps uid 0 to an
             unprivileged uid.

       fatal error, unable to load plugins
             An error occurred while loading or initializing the plugins
             specified in sudo.conf(4).

       invalid environment variable name
             One or more environment variable names specified via the -E
             option contained an equal sign (‘=’).  The arguments to the -E
             option should be environment variable names without an associated
             value.

       no password was provided
             When sudo tried to read the password, it did not receive any
             characters.  This may happen if no terminal is available (or the
             -S option is specified) and the standard input has been
             redirected from /dev/null.

       a terminal is required to read the password
             sudo needs to read the password but there is no mechanism
             available for it to do so.  A terminal is not present to read the
             password from, sudo has not been configured to read from the
             standard input, the -S option was not used, and no askpass helper
             has been specified either via the sudo.conf(4) file or the
             SUDO_ASKPASS environment variable.

       no writable temporary directory found
             sudoedit was unable to find a usable temporary directory in which
             to store its intermediate files.

       sudo must be owned by uid 0 and have the setuid bit set
             sudo was not run with root privileges.  The sudo binary does not
             have the correct owner or permissions.  It must be owned by the
             root user and have the set-user-ID bit set.

       sudoedit is not supported on this platform
             It is only possible to run sudoedit on systems that support
             setting the effective user-ID.

       timed out reading password
             The user did not enter a password before the password timeout (5
             minutes by default) expired.

       you do not exist in the passwd database
             Your user-ID does not appear in the system passwd database.

       you may not specify environment variables in edit mode
             It is only possible to specify environment variables when running
             a command.  When editing a file, the editor is run with the
             user's environment unmodified.

SEE ALSO
       su(1), stat(2), login_cap(3), passwd(4), sudo.conf(4), sudo_plugin(4),
       sudoers(4), sudoers_timestamp(4), sudoreplay(1m), visudo(1m)

HISTORY
       See the HISTORY file in the sudo distribution
       (https://www.sudo.ws/history.html) for a brief history of sudo.

AUTHORS
       Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists
       of code written primarily by:

             Todd C. Miller

       See the CONTRIBUTORS file in the sudo distribution
       (https://www.sudo.ws/contributors.html) for an exhaustive list of
       people who have contributed to sudo.

CAVEATS
       There is no easy way to prevent a user from gaining a root shell if
       that user is allowed to run arbitrary commands via sudo.  Also, many
       programs (such as editors) allow the user to run commands via shell
       escapes, thus avoiding sudo's checks.  However, on most systems it is
       possible to prevent shell escapes with the sudoers(4) plugin's noexec
       functionality.

       It is not meaningful to run the cd command directly via sudo, e.g.,

             $ sudo cd /usr/local/protected

       since when the command exits the parent process (your shell) will still
       be the same.  Please see the EXAMPLES section for more information.

       Running shell scripts via sudo can expose the same kernel bugs that
       make set-user-ID shell scripts unsafe on some operating systems (if
       your OS has a /dev/fd/ directory, set-user-ID shell scripts are
       generally safe).

BUGS
       If you feel you have found a bug in sudo, please submit a bug report at
       https://bugzilla.sudo.ws/

SUPPORT
       Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see
       https://www.sudo.ws/mailman/listinfo/sudo-users to subscribe or search
       the archives.

DISCLAIMER
       sudo is provided “AS IS” and any express or implied warranties,
       including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
       merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed.
       See the LICENSE file distributed with sudo or
       https://www.sudo.ws/license.html for complete details.



Sudo 1.9.2                        May 7, 2020                         SUDO(1m)
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