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tar(1)

tar(1)                           User Commands                          tar(1)



NAME
       tar - create tape archives and add or extract files

SYNOPSIS
       tar c[BDEFhijlnopPTvwzZ@/[0-7]][bf][X...] [blocksize]
            [tarfile] [size] [exclude-file]...
            {file | −I include-file | −C directory file}...


       tar r[BDEFhijlnTvwzZ@/[0-7]][bf] [blocksize] [tarfile]
            [size]
            {file | −I include-file | −C directory file}...


       tar t[BFhijlnTvzZ[0-7]][f][X...] [tarfile] [size]
            [exclude-file]... {file | −I include-file}...


       tar u[BDEFhijlnTvwzZ@/[0-7]][bf] [blocksize] [tarfile]
            [size] file...


       tar x[BFhilmnjopTvwzZ@/[0-7]][f][X...] [tarfile] [size]
            [exclude-file]... [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       The  tar  command archives and extracts files to and from a single file
       called a tarfile. A tarfile is usually a magnetic tape, but it  can  be
       any  file. tar's actions are controlled by the key argument. The key is
       a string of characters containing exactly one function letter (c, r,  t
       ,  u,  or  x)  and zero or more function modifiers (letters or digits),
       depending on the function letter used. The key string contains no SPACE
       characters.  Function modifier arguments are listed on the command line
       in the same order as their corresponding function modifiers  appear  in
       the key string.


       The  −I   include-file,  −C  directory file, and file arguments specify
       which files or directories are to be  archived  or  extracted.  In  all
       cases,  appearance  of a directory name refers to the files and (recur‐
       sively) subdirectories of that directory.  Arguments  appearing  within
       braces ({ }) indicate that one of the arguments must be specified.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       −C directory file

           Performs  a  chdir  (see cd(1)) operation on directory and performs
           the c (create) or r (replace) operation on file. Use short relative
           path  names  for  file. If file is ".", archive all files in direc‐
           tory. This operand enables archiving files from  multiple  directo‐
           ries not related by a close common parent.


       −I include-file

           Opens  include-file  containing  a list of files, one per line, and
           treats it as if each file appeared separately on the command  line.
           Be  careful  of trailing white spaces. Also beware of leading white
           spaces, since, for each line in the included file, the entire  line
           (apart  from  the  newline)  is  used  to match against the initial
           string of files to include. In the case where excluded files (see X
           function  modifier)  are  also specified, they take precedence over
           all included files. If a file is specified in both the exclude-file
           and the include-file (or on the command line), it is excluded.


       file

           A path name of a regular file or directory to be archived (when the
           c, r or u functions are specified), extracted (x)  or  listed  (t).
           When  file  is  the path name of a directory, the action applies to
           all of the files and (recursively) subdirectories  of  that  direc‐
           tory.

           When a file is archived, and the E flag (see Function Modifiers) is
           not specified, the filename cannot exceed 256 characters. In  addi‐
           tion,  it  must be possible to split the name between parent direc‐
           tory names so that the prefix is no longer than 155 characters  and
           the  name  is  no  longer than 100 characters. If E is specified, a
           name of up to PATH_MAX characters can be specified.

           For example, a file whose basename is longer  than  100  characters
           could not be archived without using the E flag. A file whose direc‐
           tory portion is 200 characters and whose basename is 50  characters
           could  be  archived  (without  using  E)  if a slash appears in the
           directory name somewhere in character positions 151-156.


   Function Letters
       The function portion of the key is specified by one  of  the  following
       letters:

       c

           Create.  Writing begins at the beginning of the tarfile, instead of
           at the end.


       r

           Replace. The named files are written at the end of the  tarfile.  A
           file  created  with  extended headers must be updated with extended
           headers (see E flag under Function Modifiers). A file created with‐
           out extended headers cannot be modified with extended headers.


       t

           Table of Contents. The names of the specified files are listed each
           time they occur in the tarfile. If no file argument  is  specified,
           the  names  of  all files and any associated extended attributes in
           the tarfile are listed. With the v  function  modifier,  additional
           information for the specified files is displayed.


       u

           Update.  The  named  files are written at the end of the tarfile if
           they are not already in the tarfile, or if they have been  modified
           since last written to that tarfile. An update can be rather slow. A
           tarfile created on a 5.x system cannot be updated on a 4.x  system.
           A  file created with extended headers must be updated with extended
           headers (see E flag under Function Modifiers). A file created with‐
           out extended headers cannot be modified with extended headers.


       x

           Extract  or restore. The named files are extracted from the tarfile
           and written to the directory specified in the tarfile, relative  to
           the  current  directory.  Use  the relative path names of files and
           directories to be extracted.

           By default, absolute pathnames (those that begin with a  /  charac‐
           ter)  have  the  leading  slash removed, therefore extracting those
           files and directories relative to the current directory.

           Using the P flag, absolute path names contained in the tar  archive
           are  unpacked  using  the absolute path names, that is, the leading
           forward slash (/) is not stripped off.

           If a named file matches a directory whose contents has been written
           to the tarfile, this directory is recursively extracted. The owner,
           modification time, and mode are restored, if  possible.  Otherwise,
           to restore owner, you must be the super-user. Character-special and
           block-special devices (created by mknod(8)) can only  be  extracted
           by  the  super-user.  If  no file argument is specified, the entire
           content of the tarfile is extracted. If the tarfile  contains  sev‐
           eral  files  with the same name, each file is written to the appro‐
           priate directory, overwriting the previous one. Filename  substitu‐
           tion  wildcards  cannot  be  used for extracting files from the ar‐
           chive. Rather, use a command of the form:

             tar xvf ... /dev/rmt/0 `tar tf ... /dev/rmt/0 | \
                  grep 'pattern' `




       When extracting tapes created with the r or u functions, directory mod‐
       ification  times  can not be set correctly. These same functions cannot
       be used with many tape drives due to tape drive limitations such as the
       absence of backspace or append capabilities.


       When  using  the  r,  u, or x functions or the X function modifier, the
       named files must match exactly the corresponding files in the  tarfile.
       For  example,  to  extract ./thisfile, you must specify ./thisfile, and
       not thisfile. The t function displays how each file was archived.

   Function Modifiers
       The characters below can be used in conjunction with  the  letter  that
       selects the desired function.

       b blocksize

           Blocking  Factor.  Use  when reading or writing to raw magnetic ar‐
           chives (see f below). The blocksize argument specifies  the  number
           of 512-byte tape blocks to be included in each read or write opera‐
           tion performed on the tarfile. The minimum is 1, the default is 20.
           The  maximum  value is a function of the amount of memory available
           and the blocking requirements of the specific tape device  involved
           (see  mtio(4I)  for details.) The maximum cannot exceed INT_MAX/512
           (4194303).

           When a tape archive is being read, its actual  blocking  factor  is
           automatically  detected,  provided that it is less than or equal to
           the nominal blocking factor (the value of the  blocksize  argument,
           or  the  default  value if the b modifier is not specified). If the
           actual blocking factor is greater than the nominal blocking factor,
           a read error results. See Example 5 in EXAMPLES.


       B

           Block.  Force  tar to perform multiple reads (if necessary) to read
           exactly enough bytes  to  fill  a  block.  This  function  modifier
           enables  tar  to  work across the Ethernet, since pipes and sockets
           return partial blocks even when more data is coming.  When  reading
           from  standard  input,  "−",  this function modifier is selected by
           default to ensure that tar can recover from short reads.


       D

           Data change warnings. Used  with  c,  r,  or  u  function  letters.
           Ignored with t or x function letters. If the size of a file changes
           while the file is being archived, treat this condition as a warning
           instead of as an error. A warning message is still written, but the
           exit status is not affected.


       E

           Write a tarfile with extended headers. (Used with c, r, or u  func‐
           tion letters. Ignored with t or x function letters.) When a tarfile
           is written with extended headers, the modification  time  is  main‐
           tained  with  a granularity of microseconds rather than seconds. In
           addition, filenames no longer than PATH_MAX characters  that  could
           not  be  archived  without  E, and file sizes greater than 8GB, are
           supported. The E flag is required whenever the larger files  and/or
           files with longer names, or whose UID/GID exceed 2097151, are to be
           archived, or if time granularity of microseconds is desired.


       f

           File. Use the tarfile argument as the name of the tarfile. If f  is
           specified,  /etc/default/tar  is not searched. If f is omitted, tar
           uses the device indicated by the TAPE environment variable, if set.
           Otherwise, tar uses the default values defined in /etc/default/tar.
           The number matching the archiveN  string  is  used  as  the  output
           device with the blocking and size specifications from the file. For
           example,


             tar -c 2/tmp/*

           writes  the  output  to  the  device  specified  as   archive2   in
           /etc/default/tar.

           If  the name of the tarfile is "−", tar writes to the standard out‐
           put or reads from the standard input, whichever is appropriate. tar
           can be used as the head or tail of a pipeline. tar can also be used
           to move hierarchies with the command:

             example% cd fromdir; tar cf − .| (cd todir; tar xfBp −)



       F

           With one F argument, tar excludes all directories  named  SCCS  and
           RCS  from  the  tarfile.  With  two arguments, FF, tar excludes all
           directories named SCCS and RCS, all files with .o as their  suffix,
           and all files named errs, core, and a.out.


       h

           Follow  symbolic links as if they were normal files or directories.
           Normally, tar does not follow symbolic links.


       i

           Ignore directory checksum errors.


       j

           c mode only. Compress the resulting archive with bzip2. In  extract
           or  list  modes,  this option is ignored. The implementation recog‐
           nizes bzip2 compression type automatically when  reading  archives.
           Upgrade/replace first decompresses and then applies the same mecha‐
           nism to compress the archive automatically.


       l

           Link. Output error message if unable to resolve all  links  to  the
           files  being archived. If l is not specified, no error messages are
           printed.


       m

           Modify. The modification time of the file is the  time  of  extrac‐
           tion. This function modifier is valid only with the x function.


       n

           The file being read is a non-tape device. Reading of the archive is
           faster since tar can randomly seek around the archive.


       o

           Ownership. Assign to extracted files the user and group identifiers
           of the user running the program, rather than those on tarfile. This
           is the default behavior for users other than root. If the  o  func‐
           tion  modifier is not set and the user is root, the extracted files
           takes on the group and user identifiers of  the  files  on  tarfile
           (see  chown(1)  for  more  information). The o function modifier is
           only valid with the x function.


       p

           Restore the named files to their original modes, and ACLs if appli‐
           cable,  ignoring the present umask(1). This is the default behavior
           if invoked as super-user with the x function letter  specified.  If
           super-user,  SETUID, and sticky information are also extracted, and
           files are restored with  their  original  owners  and  permissions,
           rather than owned by root. When this function modifier is used with
           the c function, ACLs are created in the tarfile  along  with  other
           information.  Errors occur when a tarfile with ACLs is extracted by
           previous versions of tar.


       P

           For archive creation, suppress the addition  of  a  trailing  /  on
           directory entries in the archive.

           For  archive  extraction,  preserve pathnames. By default, absolute
           pathnames (those that begin with a / character)  have  the  leading
           slash  removed  when  extracting  archives.  Also,  tar  refuses to
           extract archive entries whose pathnames contain a dot-dot (..).

           This option suppresses these behaviors.


       T

           When this modifier is used with the function letter c, r, or u  for
           creating,  replacing  or  updating a tarfile, the sensitivity label
           associated with each archived file and directory is stored  in  the
           tarfile.

           Specifying T implies the function modifier p.

           When  used with the letter x, if Trusted Extensions is enabled then
           the following restrictions apply:

           If the target directory is within a labeled zone, the  tar  program
           verifies that the file's sensitivity label specified in the archive
           equals the sensitivity label of the destination directory. If  not,
           the  file  is not restored. This operation must be invoked from the
           global zone.

           If the archived file has a relative pathname, it is restored to the
           corresponding  directory with the same label, if available. This is
           done by prepending to the current destination  directory  the  root
           pathname  of  the zone whose label equals the file. If no such zone
           exists, the file is not restored.

           Limited support is provided for extracting  labeled  archives  from
           Trusted  Solaris 8. Only sensitivity labels, and multi-level direc‐
           tory specifications are interpreted. Privilege  specifications  and
           audit  attribute  flags  are silently ignored. Multilevel directory
           specifications including symbolic links to single level directories
           are are mapped into zone-relative pathnames if a zone with the same
           label is available. This support is intended to  facilitate  migra‐
           tion  of  home  directories. Architectural differences preclude the
           extraction of arbitrarily labeled files from Trusted Solaris 8 into
           identical   pathnames   in  Trusted  Extensions.  Files  cannot  be
           extracted unless  their  archived  label  matches  the  destination
           label.


       v

           Verbose. Output the name of each file preceded by the function let‐
           ter. With the t function, v provides additional  information  about
           the  tarfile entries. The listing is similar to the format produced
           by the -l option of the ls(1) command.


       w

           What. Output the action to be taken and the name of the file,  then
           await  the user's confirmation. If the response is affirmative, the
           action is performed; otherwise, the action is not  performed.  This
           function modifier cannot be used with the t function.


       X

           Exclude.  Use the exclude-file argument as a file containing a list
           of relative path names for files (or directories)  to  be  excluded
           from the tarfile when using the functions c, x, or t. Be careful of
           trailing white spaces. Also beware of leading white spaces,  since,
           for each line in the excluded file, the entire line (apart from the
           newline) is used to match against the initial string  of  files  to
           exclude. Lines in the exclude file are matched exactly, so an entry
           like "/var" does not exclude the /var directory if tar  is  backing
           up  relative  pathnames.  The entry should read "./var" under these
           circumstances. The tar command does not expand shell metacharacters
           in the exclude file, so specifying entries like "*.o" does not have
           the effect of excluding all files with names suffixed with ".o". If
           a  complex list of files is to be excluded, the exclude file should
           be generated by some means such as the find(1) command with  appro‐
           priate conditions.

           Multiple  X  arguments can be used, with one exclude-file per argu‐
           ment. In the case where included files (see −I  include-file  oper‐
           and)  are  also  specified, the excluded files take precedence over
           all included files. If a file is specified in both the exclude-file
           and the include-file (or on the command line), it is excluded.


       z

           c  mode  only. Compress the resulting archive with gzip. In extract
           or list mode, this option is ignored. The implementation recognizes
           gzip   compression   type   automatically  when  reading  archives.
           Upgrade/replace first decompresses and then applies the same mecha‐
           nism to compress the archive automatically.


       Z

           c mode only. Compress the resulting archive with compress. See com‐
           press(1). In extract or list modes, this  option  is  ignored.  The
           implementation  recognizes  compress compression type automatically
           when reading archives. Upgrade/replace first decompresses and  then
           applies the same mechanism to compress the archive automatically.


       @

           Include  extended  attributes  in archive. By default, tar does not
           place extended attributes in the archive. With this flag, tar looks
           for  extended  attributes  on the files to be placed in the archive
           and add them to the archive. Extended attributes go in the  archive
           as  special  files with a special type label. When this modifier is
           used with the x function, extended attributes  are  extracted  from
           the  tape along with the normal file data. Extended attribute files
           can only be extracted from an archive as  part  of  a  normal  file
           extract.  Attempts  to  explicitly  extract  attribute  records are
           ignored.


       /

           Include extended system attributes in archive. By default, tar does
           not  place  extended  system  attributes  in the archive. With this
           flag, tar looks for extended system attributes on the files  to  be
           placed in the archive and adds them to the archive. Extended system
           attributes go in the archive as special files with a  special  type
           label.  When  this  modifier  is used with the x function, extended
           system attributes are extracted from the tape along with the normal
           file  data.  Extended  system attribute files can only be extracted
           from an archive as part of  a  normal  file  extract.  Attempts  to
           explicitly extract attribute records are ignored.


       [0-7]

           Select  an  alternative  drive  on  which  the tape is mounted. The
           default entries are specified in /etc/default/tar. If no digit or f
           function  modifier is specified, the entry in /etc/default/tar with
           digit "0" is the default.


USAGE
       The automatic determination of the actual blocking factor can be fooled
       when  reading  from  a  pipe  or  a socket (see the B function modifier
       below).


       1/4" streaming tape has an inherent blocking  factor  of  one  512-byte
       block. It can be read or written using any blocking factor.


       This  function modifier works for archives on disk files and block spe‐
       cial devices, among  others,  but  is  intended  principally  for  tape
       devices.


       For information on tar header format, see archives.h(3HEAD).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating an Archive of Your Home Directory



       The following is an example using tar to create an archive of your home
       directory on a tape mounted on drive /dev/rmt/0:


         example% cd
         example% tar cvf /dev/rmt/0 .
         messages from tar




       The c function letter means create the archive. The v function modifier
       outputs  messages explaining what tar is doing. The f function modifier
       indicates that the tarfile is being specified (/dev/rmt/0 in this exam‐
       ple).  The dot (.) at the end of the command line indicates the current
       directory and is the argument of the f function modifier.



       Display the table of contents of the tarfile with  the  following  com‐
       mand:


         example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0




       The output is similar to the following for the POSIX locale:




         rw−r−−r−−   1677/40    2123    Nov  7 18:15 1985    ./test.c
         ...
         example%




       The columns have the following meanings:


           o      column 1 is the access permissions to ./test.c


           o      column 2 is the user-id/group-id of ./test.c


           o      column 3 is the size of ./test.c in bytes


           o      column  4  is  the  modification  date of ./test.c. When the
                  LC_TIME category is not set to the POSIX locale, a different
                  format and date order field can be used.


           o      column 5 is the name of ./test.c




       To extract files from the archive:


         example% tar xvf /dev/rmt/0
         messages from tar
         example%




       If  there  are multiple archive files on a tape, each is separated from
       the following one by an EOF marker. To have tar read the first and sec‐
       ond  archives from a tape with multiple archives on it, the non-rewind‐
       ing version of the tape device name must be used with  the  f  function
       modifier, as follows:


         example% tar xvfp /dev/rmt/0n read first archive from tape
         messages from tar
         example% tar xvfp /dev/rmt/0n read second archive from tape
         messages from tar
         example%




       Notice  that  in some earlier releases, the above scenario did not work
       correctly, and intervention with mt(1) between tar invocations was nec‐
       essary.  To  emulate  the  old behavior, use the non-rewind device name
       containing the letter b for BSD behavior. See the Close Operations sec‐
       tion of the mtio(4I) manual page.


       Example  2  Archiving  Files from /usr/include and from /etc to Default
       Tape Drive 0



       To archive files from /usr/include and from /etc to default tape  drive
       0:


         example% tar c -C /usr include -C /etc .




       The  table  of contents from the resulting tarfile would produce output
       like the following:


         include/
         include/a.out.h
         and all the other files in /usr/include ...
         ./chown and all the other files in /etc




       To extract all files in the include directory:


         example% tar xv include
         x include/, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks \
             and all files under include ...



       Example 3 Transferring Files Across the Network



       The following is an example using tar to transfer files across the net‐
       work. First, here is how to archive files from the local machine (exam‐
       ple) to a tape on a remote system (host):


         example% tar cvfb − 20 files| \
             ssh host dd of=/dev/rmt/0 obs=20b
         messages from tar
         example%




       In the example above, we are creating a tarfile with the c key  letter,
       asking for verbose output from tar with the v function modifier, speci‐
       fying the name of the output tarfile using the f function modifier (the
       standard  output  is where the tarfile appears, as indicated by the `−'
       sign), and specifying the blocksize (20) with the b function  modifier.
       If  you  want  to  change  the blocksize, you must change the blocksize
       arguments both on the tar command and on the dd command.


       Example 4 Retrieving Files from a Tape on the Remote System Back to the
       Local
                       System



       The following is an example that uses tar to retrieve files from a tape
       on the remote system back to the local system:


         example% ssh -n host dd if=/dev/rmt/0 bs=20b | \
             tar xvBfb − 20 files
         messages from tar
         example%




       In the example above, we are extracting from the tarfile with the x key
       letter, asking for verbose  output  from  tar with the v function modi‐
       fier, telling tar it is reading from a pipe with the B  function  modi‐
       fier,  specifying  the  name  of the input tarfile using the f function
       modifier (the standard input is where the tarfile appears, as indicated
       by the "−" sign), and specifying the blocksize (20) with the b function
       modifier.


       Example 5 Creating an Archive of the Home Directory



       The following example creates an  archive  of  the  home  directory  on
       /dev/rmt/0 with an actual blocking factor of 19:


         example% tar cvfb /dev/rmt/0 19 $HOME




       To  recognize this archive's actual blocking factor without using the b
       function modifier:


         example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0
         tar: blocksize = 19
         ...




       To recognize this archive's actual blocking factor using a larger nomi‐
       nal blocking factor:


         example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0 30
         tar: blocksize = 19
         ...




       Attempt to recognize this archive's actual blocking factor using a nom‐
       inal blocking factor that is too small:


         example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0 10
         tar: tape read error



       Example 6 Creating Compressed Archives



       The following example creates a compressed archive using bzip:


         example% tar cjf tarfile /tmp/*




       The compressed file name is tarfile.bz2



       The same compressed archive would be created in this case if  the  fol‐
       lowing sequence of commands had been used instead:




         example% tar cf tarfile /tmp/*
         example% bzip2 tarfile




       however,  the  creation  and removal of the intermediate file is elimi‐
       nated. The function modifiers z and Z behave similarly,  but  use  gzip
       and compress, respectively.



       The following example creates a compressed archive using compress:


         example% tar cZf tarfile /tmp/*






       The compressed file name is tarfile.Z.



       The following example creates a compressed archive using gzip:


         example% tar czf tarfile /tmp/*






       The compressed file name is tarfile.gz.


       Example 7 Extracting Files from a Compressed Archive



       The following examples extract files from a compressed archive: For ar‐
       chives compressed using bzip2 compression mode:




         example% tar xvf tarfile.bz2
         example% tar xvfj tarfile.bz2
         example% bzcat tarfile.bz2 | tar xvf -




       For archives compressed using compress compression mode:




         example% tar xvf tarfile.Z
         example% tar xvfZ tarfile.Z
         example% zcat tarfile.Z | tar xvf -




       For archives compressed using gzip compression mode:




         example% tar xvf tarfile.gz
         example% tar xvfz tarfile.gz
         example% gzcat tarfile.gz | tar xvf -



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       TMPDIR

           Creates a temporary file in /tmp by default.  Otherwise,  tar  uses
           the directory specified by TMPDIR.



       See  environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of tar:  LC_COLLATE,  LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME, TZ, and NLSPATH.


       Affirmative  responses are processed using the extended regular expres‐
       sion defined for the yesexpr keyword in the LC_MESSAGES category of the
       user's  locale. The locale specified in the LC_COLLATE category defines
       the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and  multi-character  col‐
       lating  elements used in the expression defined for yesexpr. The locale
       specified in LC_CTYPE  determines  the  locale  for  interpretation  of
       sequences of bytes of text data a characters, the behavior of character
       classes used in the expression defined for the yesexpr. See locale(7).

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0

           Successful completion.


       >0

           An error occurred.


FILES
           o      /dev/rmt/[0-7][b][n]


           o      /dev/rmt/[0-7]l[b][n]


           o      /dev/rmt/[0-7]m[b][n]


           o      /dev/rmt/[0-7]h[b][n]


           o      /dev/rmt/[0-7]u[b][n]


           o      /dev/rmt/[0-7]c[b][n]


           o      /etc/default/tar



       Setting for /etc/default/tar might look like the following:

         archive0=/dev/rmt/0
         archive1=/dev/rmt/0n
         archive2=/dev/rmt/1
         archive3=/dev/rmt/1n
         archive4=/dev/rmt/0
         archive5=/dev/rmt/0n
         archive6=/dev/rmt/1
         archive7=/dev/rmt/1n


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)


       ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _ CSIEnabled
       _ Interface StabilityCommitted


SEE ALSO
       ar(1),  basename(1),  cd(1),  chown(1),  compress(1),  cpio(1), csh(1),
       dirname(1), find(1), ls(1), mt(1), pax(1), umask(1), archives.h(3HEAD),
       mtio(4I), attributes(7), environ(7), fsattr(7), mknod(8)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Diagnostic  messages  are  output  for  bad  key  characters  and  tape
       read/write errors, and for insufficient memory to hold the link tables.

NOTES
       There is no way to access the n-th occurrence of a file.


       Tape errors are handled ungracefully.


       The tar archive format allows UIDs and GIDs up to 2097151 to be  stored
       in the archive header. Files with UIDs and GIDs greater than this value
       is archived with the UID and GID of 60001.


       If an archive is created that contains files whose names  were  created
       by  processes  running in multiple locales, a single locale that uses a
       full 8-bit codeset (for example, the en_US locale) should be used  both
       to create the archive and to extract files from the archive.


       Neither  the  r  function  letter nor the u function letter can be used
       with  quarter-inch  archive  tapes,  since  these  tape  drives  cannot
       backspace.


       Since  tar  has no options, the standard "−−" argument that is normally
       used in other utilities to terminate  recognition  of  options  is  not
       needed.  If  used,  it  is recognized only as the first argument and is
       ignored.


       Since −C  directory  file and −I  include-file are multi-argument oper‐
       ands,  any of the following methods can be used to archive or extract a
       file named −C or −I:

           1.     Specify them using file operands containing a / character on
                  the command line (such as /home/joe/−C or ./−I).


           2.     Include them in an include file with −I  include-file.


           3.     Specify the directory in which the file resides:


                    -C directory -C

                  or

                    -C directory -I



           4.     Specify the entire directory in which the file resides:

                    -C directory .






Oracle Solaris 11.4               25 Nov 2016                           tar(1)
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