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inet(4P)                       Network Protocols                      inet(4P)

       inet - Internet protocol family

       #include <sys/types.h>

       #include <netinet/in.h>

       The Internet protocol family implements a collection of protocols which
       are centered around the Internet Protocol ("IP") and which share a com‐
       mon address format. The Internet family protocols can be accessed using
       the socket interface, where they support the  SOCK_STREAM,  SOCK_DGRAM,
       and  SOCK_RAW  socket  types,  or  the Transport Level Interface (TLI),
       where they support the connectionless (T_CLTS) and connection  oriented
       (T_COTS_ORD) service types.

       The  Internet  protocol  family  is  comprised of the Internet Protocol
       ("IP"), the Address Resolution Protocol ("ARP"), the  Internet  Control
       Message  Protocol  ("ICMP"), the Transmission Control Protocol ("TCP"),
       and the User Datagram Protocol ("UDP").

       TCP supports the socket interface's SOCK_STREAM abstraction  and  TLI's
       T_COTS_ORD service type. UDP supports the SOCK_DGRAM socket abstraction
       and the TLI  T_CLTS service type. See tcp(4P)  and  udp(4P).  A  direct
       interface  to  IP  is available using both TLI and the socket interface
       (see ip(4P)). ICMP is used by the kernel to handle and report errors in
       protocol  processing.  It  is  also  accessible  to  user programs (see
       icmp(4P)). ARP is used to translate 32-bit  IP  addresses  into  48-bit
       Ethernet addresses. See arp(4P).

       The  32-bit  IP  address is divided into network number and host number
       parts. It is frequency-encoded. The most-significant  bit  is  zero  in
       Class A addresses, in which the high-order 8 bits represent the network
       number. Class B addresses have their high order two bits set to 10  and
       use  the  high-order  16  bits  as  the  network  number field. Class C
       addresses have a 24-bit network number part of  which  the  high  order
       three  bits  are  110. Sites with a cluster of IP networks may chose to
       use a single network number for the cluster; this is done by using sub‐
       net  addressing. The host number portion of the address is further sub‐
       divided into subnet number and host number parts. Within a subnet, each
       subnet  appears  to  be  an  individual network. Externally, the entire
       cluster appears to be a single, uniform network requiring only a single
       routing entry. Subnet addressing is enabled and examined by the follow‐
       ing ioctl(2) commands. They have the same form as the SIOCSIFADDR  com‐

       SIOCSIFNETMASK    Set  interface network mask. The network mask defines
                         the network part of the address; if it contains  more
                         of  the address than the address type would indicate,
                         then subnets are in use.

       SIOCGIFNETMASK    Get interface network mask.

       IP addresses are four byte quantities, stored in network byte order. IP
       addresses  should  be  manipulated using the byte order conversion rou‐
       tines. See byteorder(3C).

       Addresses in the Internet protocol family use  the  sockaddr_in  struc‐
       ture, which has that following members:

         short    sin_family;
         ushort_t sin_port;
         struct   in_addr  sin_addr;
         char     sin_zero[8];

       Library  routines  are  provided to manipulate structures of this form;
       See inet(3C).

       The sin_addr field of the sockaddr_in structure specifies  a  local  or
       remote  IP  address.  Each  network  interface  has  its  own unique IP
       address. The special value INADDR_ANY may be  used  in  this  field  to
       effect "wildcard" matching. Given in a bind(3C) call, this value leaves
       the local IP address of the socket unspecified, so that the socket will
       receive  connections  or  messages  directed  at  any  of  the valid IP
       addresses of the system. This can prove useful when a  process  neither
       knows  nor  cares what the local IP address is or when a process wishes
       to receive requests using all of  its  network  interfaces.  The  sock‐
       addr_in  structure  given  in the bind(3C) call must specify an in_addr
       value of either INADDR_ANY or one of the system's valid  IP  addresses.
       Requests to bind any other address will elicit the error EADDRNOTAVAIL.
       When a connect(3C) call is made for a socket that has a wildcard  local
       address,  the  system  sets  the sin_addr field of the socket to the IP
       address of the network interface that the packets for  that  connection
       are routed through.

       The sin_port field of the sockaddr_in structure specifies a port number
       used by TCP or UDP. The local port address specified in a bind(3C) call
       is   restricted   to   be  greater  than  IPPORT_RESERVED  (defined  in
       <<netinet/in.h>>) unless the creating process is running as  the  supe‐
       ruser,  providing  a  space of protected port numbers. In addition, the
       local port address must not be in use by any  socket  of  same  address
       family and type. Requests to bind sockets to port numbers being used by
       other sockets return the error EADDRINUSE. If the local port address is
       specified  as  0,  then  the system picks a unique port address greater
       than IPPORT_RESERVED. A unique local port address is also picked when a
       socket  which  is  not  bound  is  used in a connect(3C) or sendto (see
       send(3C)) call. This allows programs which do not care which local port
       number  is  used to set up TCP connections by simply calling socket(3C)
       and then connect(3C), and to send UDP datagrams with a socket(3C)  call
       followed by a sendto() call.

       Although  this  implementation  restricts  sockets to unique local port
       numbers, TCP allows multiple  simultaneous  connections  involving  the
       same  local port number so long as the remote IP addresses or port num‐
       bers are different for each connection. Programs may  explicitly  over‐
       ride  the  socket restriction by setting the SO_REUSEADDR socket option
       with setsockopt (see getsockopt(3C)).

       TLI applies somewhat different semantics to the binding of  local  port
       numbers.  These semantics apply when Internet family protocols are used
       using the TLI.

       ioctl(2), bind(3C), byteorder(3C), connect(3C), gethostbyname(3C), get‐
       netbyname(3C),  getprotobyname(3C),  getservbyname(3C), getsockopt(3C),
       send(3C), socket(3C), arp(4P), icmp(4P), ip(4P), tcp(4P), udp(4P)

       Network Information Center, DDN Protocol Handbook  (3  vols.),  Network
       Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1985.

       The Internet protocol support is subject to change as the Internet pro‐
       tocols develop. Users should not  depend  on  details  of  the  current
       implementation, but rather the services exported.

Oracle Solaris 11.4               3 Aug 2000                          inet(4P)
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